Macam - Macam Genre of Text

Posted by Ockym al ayuby

1.      Narative
Social Function : To amuse, entertain, and to deal with actual or vicarious experiences in different ways.

Generic Structure:
1)      Orientation
2)      Complication
3)      Resolution
4)      Evaluation
5)      Reorientation

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features:
1)      A focus on specific usually individualized participants
2)      The use of Simple Past
3)      The use of temporal conjunction
4)      The use of noun phrases

example of Narrative text

Once upon a time, there was a young girl named Cinderella. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters.The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. They treated Cinderella very badly. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house; such as scrubbing the floor, cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. The two step sisters, on the other hand, did not work about the house. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear.

One day, the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. At last, the day of the ball came, and away went the sisters to it. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. “Why are crying, Cinderella?” a voice asked. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her, “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. “Well” said the godmother,”you’ve been such a cheerful, hardworking, uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. Magically, the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand, and it became a beautiful ball gown. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. “Now, Cinderella”, she said; “You must leave before midnight”. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach.Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. She danced again and again with the king’s son. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve, she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. In her hurry, one of her glass slipper was left behind.A few days later, the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them, no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. In the end, the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. It fitted perfectly.

Finally, she was driven t
o the palace. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. They were married and live happily ever after.

2.      Descriptive

Social Function : To describe a particular person, place, or thing.

Generic Structure :
1)      Identification
2)      Description

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features :
1)      The use Simple Present Tense
2)      Focus on Specific Participant

Example Of Descriptive Text
Borobudur Temple
Borobudur is Hindu – Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.

Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular.

Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice ir crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia.

Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.

3.      Recount
Social Function : To tell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining.

Generic Structure :
1)      Orientation
2)      Events
3)      Reorientation

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features :
1)      Use of past tense
2)      Focus on temporal sequence
3)      Noun and Noun phrases

Example Of Recount Text

Mr. Richard’s family was on vacation. They are Mr. and Mrs. Richard with two sons. They went to London. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. They had booked fourteen days tour. This includes travel and accommodation. They also included tours around London

They boarded a large Boeing flight. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. They gave them food and drink. There was a film for their entertainment. They had a very pleasant flight. They slept part of the way.

On arrival at Heathrow Airport, they had to go to Customs and Immigration. The officers were pleasant. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. Mr. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. They arranged the transfer to a hotel.

The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. The room had perfect view of the park. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. Instead of keys for the room, they inserted a key-card to open the door. On the third floor, there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They had variety of food.

4.      Report

Social Function : To describe the way things are with reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomenon in our environment.

Generic Structure :
1)      General Classification
2)      Description

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features :
1)      Focus on generic participants
2)      Use of Present Tense

Example Of Report Text

Do you know what is the largest lizard? This lizard is called komodo. It lives in the scrub and woodland of a few Indonesian islands.

Komodo dragon is the world's heaviest lizard, weighing 150 pounds or more. The largest Komodo ever measured was more than 10 feet (3 meters) long and weighed 366 pounds (166 kg) but the average size of komodo in the wild is about 8 feet (2.5 meters) long and 200 pounds (91 kg)

Komodo has gray scaly skin, a pointed snout, powerful limbs and a muscular tail. They use their keen sense of smell to locate decaying animal remains from several miles away. They also hunt other lizards as well as large mammals and are sometimes cannibalistic.

The Komodo dragon's teeth are almost completely covered by its gums. When it feeds, the gums bleed, creating an ideal culture for virulent bacteria. The bacteria that live in the Komodo dragon's saliva causes septicemia, or blood poisoning, in its victims. A dragon will bite its prey, then follow it until the animal is too weak to carry on.

5.      Procedure
Social Function : To describe how something is accomplished through a sequnce of actions or steps

Generic Structure :
1)      Goals
2)      Materials
3)      Steps

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features :
1)      Use of Simple Present Tense often imperative
2)      Use mainly of temporal conjunction/connectives
3)      Use action verbs

Example of Procedure Text in Making Kite

Having a kite flying is interesting and make it by self is easy. Prepare the following materials to make a kite:
Butcher cord
Scotch tape or glue
1)      Sheet of strong paper
2)      Strong, straight wooden sticks of bamboo

Markers, paint or crayons
After the materials have been prepared, the directions bellow is easy instruction on how to make a kite:
1)      Make a cross with the two sticks, with the shorter stick placed horizontally across the longer stick.
2)      Tie the two sticks together with the string in such a way as to make sure that they are at right angles to each other.
3)      Cut a notch at each end of the sticks. Make it deep enough for the type of string you are using to fit in to. Cut a piece of string long enough to stretch all around the kite frame.
4)      Lay the sail material flat and place the stick frame face down on top. Cut around it, leaving about 2-3cm for a margin. Fold these edges over and glue it down so that the material is tight.
5)      Make a tail by tying a small ribbon roughly every 10cm along the length of string.
6)      Decorate your kite with the markers!

6.      Analytical Exposition
Social Function : To persuade the reader or listener that something is the case
Generic Structure :
1)      Thesis Position
2)      Arguments Points
3)      Reiteration

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features :
1)      Use General nouns, Technical verbs, Relating verbs, Thinking verbs
2)      Modal adverbs
3)      Connectives
4)      Evaluative language
5)      Passive sentence

example of Analytical Exposition text
Jakarta as a Bad Working Place for Expatriates

Jakarta is the second-worst place for expatriates to work in outside of the United States of America, Canada and Western Europe. It is according to a recent report published by Businessweek.

The Businessweek report ranked emerging markets that might be challenging to move into due to their level of pollution, disease, political violence and availability of good and services.

The report ranked Jakarta second, just below lagos in Nageria and above Riyadh Saudi Arabia, saying the threat of violence from extremest, in particular, was serious drawback to living in Jakarta. Bombings targeting foreign interests in Jakarta, such as the JW Marriot hotel bombing in 2003, have been repeated elsewhere in the city.

The report said despite problem common to many developing cities such as the risk of disease, poor sanitation, and excessive pollution, Indonesia can be an enticing location.

In response, the Jakarta administration took the report positively, saying it could spur the administration to improve its performance.

7.      Hortatory Exposition
Social Function : To persuade reader that something should or should not be the case

Generic Structure :
1)      Thesis
2)      Arguments
3)      Statement

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features :
1)      Use Abstract nouns, Technical verbs, Relating verbs, Action verbs, Thinking verbs
2)      Modal adverbs
3)      Connectives
4)      Simple Present Tense
5)      Passive sentence
6)      Evaluative language

example of Hortatory Exposition text
Watch your Kids While Watching TV

Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. However, is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is, of course, absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from, especially violence, pornography, consumerism and so on.

Recently, a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption, stress, and short sleep duration.
Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood, and the possibility of being aggressive.

Meanwhile, many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight.

Considering some facts mentioning above, protect your children with the following tips:

Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day

Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms

Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch

Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show

8.      Review
Social Function : To critique an art work, event for a public audience.
Generic Structure :
1)      Orientation
2)      Interpretive Recount
3)      Evaluation

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features :
1)      Focus on Generic Participants
2)      Use adjective clause
3)      Metafor

example of Hortatory Review text
2012 Film Review

2012 is Roland Emmerich's film which uses the Mayan calendar and other end-of-days prophecies for their doomsday scenario. It imagines the world coming to an end in 2012.

2012 film brings off a series of wonders. The movie hits its peak early on. It starts when Cusack drives a limo through the streets of Los Angeles as freeways and skyscrapers crumble all around him from the shock of a 10.5 earthquake. The preposterous flying sequence is equally thrilling. The climax occurs aboard the giant ark, when an equipment malfunction almost threatens the entire mission.

Unfortunately, the crucial sequence is not filmed or edited with the requisite clarity. In 2012 film, Emmerich leaves us befuddled as to exactly what is happening to whom. However, Emmerich' 2012 deserves credit for offbeat casting. Cusack supplies his trademark hangdog charm. McCarthy has perhaps his best role ever as Peet's cocky. Danny Glover lends dignity to the role of the tormented president. Chiwetel Ejiofor, as the chief scientist, brings a moving sense of anguish to a stock role. Platt has fun playing the villain of the piece, and Woody Harrelson also chews the scenery as a bug-eyed radio prophet trying to warn his listeners about Armageddon.

All in one, 2012's cinematography, production design and visual effects are awards-worthy. Music also propels the movie. It presents American Idol runner-up, Adam Lambert, who provides a rousing anthem over the end credits.

9.      Discussion
Social Function : To present two points of view about an issue.

Generic Structure :
1)      Issue
2)      Arguments
3)      Point
4)      Elaboration
5)      Conclusion or Recommendation

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features :
1)      General nouns
2)      Relating verbs
3)      Thinking verbs
4)      Additives, contrastives and causal connectives
5)      Detailed noun groups
6)      Modalities

Example Of Hortatory Discussion Text
he Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power

Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria, England in 1956.

Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed, and produces huge amounts of energy. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow:

It costs about the same coal, so it is not expansive to make.

It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.

It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium.

It produces small amount of waste.

It is reliable.

On the other hand, nuclear power is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Furthermore, although it is reliable, a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong, a nuclear accident ca be a major accident.

People are increasingly concerned about this matter. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world.

10.  News item
Social Function : To inform, readers, listeners, or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important

Generic Structure :
1)      Newsworthy Events
2)      Background Events
3)      Source

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features :
1)      Focus on something, person, and animal
2)      Use action verbs
3)      Use Past Tense

Example Of News Item Text
Winning Award for Airport Toilet

Surabaya's Juanda International Airport has won the Bulture and Tourism Ministry's 2009 toilet award, beating out 2007 winner Denpasar's Ngurah Rai Airport, which now drops to fourth. Indonesia's main gateway, Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, just outside Jakarta, moves up from fourth in 2007 to second, in the biennial "Sapta Pesona Clean Public Toilet Award".

The award was first handed out in 2007, and has so far involved only international airports. Acting Culture and Tourism Minister Muhammad Nuh said he expected the award in future to also cover public toilets at tourist sites across the country.

"Granting the award to those running public toilets at tourist sites is expected to improve the quality of products and services, particularly in term of cleanliness . as part of efforts to enhance the image of national culture," Nuh said during the award presentation ceremony.

11.  Spoof Text
Definition and Social Function of Spoof

Spoof is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share the story.

Generic Structure of Spoof
1.      Orientation
2.      Events
3.      Twist

Language Feature of Spoof
1.      Focusing on people, animals or certain things
2.      Using action verb; ate, ran, etc
3.      Using adverb of time and place
4.      Told in chronological order

Example Of Spoof Text
The Spying parrot

A guy was having marital problems. He and the wife were not communicating at all and he had lonesome so he went to a pet store thinking a pet might help.

In the store he came to parrots. As he wandered down the rows of parrots he noticed one with no feet. Surprised he mutters "I wonder how he hangs onto the perch?"

The parrot said "With my prick, you dummy."

The guy was startled and said "You certainly talk well for a parrot."

The parrot said "Of course, I'm very well educated. I can discuss politics, sports, religion, most any subject you wish."

The guy said "Gee, you sound like just what I was looking for."

Then the guy bought the parrot and for three months things go great. When he came home from work the parrot told him about the recent and hottest news.

One day the guy come home from work and the parrot waved a wing at him and said "Come in and shut the door."

The guy said "What's up?"

The parrot said "I don't know how to tell you this, but the mailman came today. I saw that your wife answered the door in her transparent gown and he kissed her right on the lips."

The guy said "He did? Did you see?"

The parrot said " Yes, Then he pulled her gown down... and ....."

"My God, what happened next?"The guy said curiously to know next.

Then the parrot replied "I don't know. I got a hard-on and fell off my perch."

12.  Explanation
Explanation merupakan salah satu genre of text. Nah, disini ada beberapa contoh dan strukturnya.

Social Function: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or sociocultural phenomena.

Generic Structure
A general statement to position the reader
A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.
Significant Lexicogrammatical Features
Focus on generic, non-human Participants
Use mainly of Material Processes and Relational Processes
Use mainly of Temporal and causal Circumstances and Conjunctions

Example Of Explanation Text

The United States of America is where the Venus’s fly trap has its origins. The Venus’s fly trap is a unique plant. It belongs to a group of plants called ‘carnivorous plants’. These plants feed on insect. The Venus’s fly trap has a special mechanism by which it traps its prey. This is how it works.

At the end of each leaf – which grows from the base of a long, flowering stalk – there is a trap. The trap is made up of two lobes and is covered with short, reddish hairs which are sensitive. There are teeth like structures around the edge of the lobes.

The trap contains nectar which attracts insect. When an insect comes in contact with the nectar, the trap snaps shut. There are certain digestive juice inside the trap which digest the insect. It takes about ten days for a trapped insect to be digested. We can tell when this digestion is complete, for then the walls automatically open to wait for another victim.

There are two hundred species of carnivorous plants. Another kind of these well- known species is the pitcher plant. What differentiates this plant from the Venus’s fly trap is the shape; the mechanism to catch insects is the same in both plants.

The pitcher plants which cling to other plants by means of tendrils. At one end of the tendril, there is a pitcher –shaped vessel with an open lid. The mouth and the lid of the pitcher contain glands which produce nectar to attract insect. When an insect settles on the nectar, the lid of the pitcher shuts, trapping its victim. The digestive juices inside the pitcher then begin to work.

13.  Anecdote Text
Definition and Social Function of Anecdote
Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.

Generic Structure of Anecdote
1.      Abstract
2.      Orientation
3.      Crisis
4.      Incident.

Language Feature of Anecdote
1.      Using exclamation words; it's awful!, it's wonderful!, etc
2.      Using imperative; listen to this
3.      Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4.      Using action verb; go, write, etc
5.      Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6.      Using simple past tense

example of Anecdote Text

It is bit difficult to find out some examples of anecdote text. Most texts available over the Internet which are labeled as anecdote just referring to funny story. Meanwhile, in term of text type or text genres, anecdote text is separated to spoof which has main element of funny thing. Actually the point of anecdote is the CODA (hikma), what do the participants learn from the series of event in the story. The following text is good example of anecdote. Take a look!

Snake in the Bathroom

How would you like to find a snake in you bath?

We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and I decided that we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap.

Suddenly to my horror, a snake's head appeared in the plug hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us.

For an instant I stood there quite paralyzed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom.

Anna, who was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she'd probably have lean over the bath to get a better look.

We found out later that it was a black mamba, a poisonous kind of snake. It had obviously been fast asleep, curled up at the bottom of the nice warm water-pipe. It must have had an awful shock when the cold water came trickling down! But nothing to the shock I got! Ever since then I've always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water
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{ 7 comments... read them below or add one }

Sarip Hidayat said...

thank friend...

ockym said...

oke oke oke!!!
senang bisa berbagi!!!

asep said...

thanks gan..

Surya Darma said...


Surya Darma said...


Riff said...

nice articel.very helpful. ty gan

fitri amalia said...

Bisa berbagi rujukannya gan?

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